C# Features: Innovations or Imitations? – Part 1

Imitation is the sincirest form of flattery

Around the year 2000, Microsoft developed the C# language (led by Anders Hejlsberg). This language, along with the .NET framework had a significant strategic purpose. Microsoft would create a better language tied to Windows, driving customers to the Windows ecosystem and Microsoft products. Perhaps this was part of the notorious Embrace, extend, and extinguish Microsoft strategy (now in the past).

This development came in response to Java, which has gained enormous popularity by then. C# had a great deal in common with Java originally and in fact was called an “imitation” by James Gosling, the creator of the Java language.

Since 2000 and .NET 1.0, C# evolved a great deal, separating itself from Java and becoming one of the most popular languages in the world. This comes with a long list of features over the years that blend together and form today’s C#.

Some of those features were original developments and some were imitations from other languages. Let’s find out the truth.

I don’t mean to imply that imitations are a bad thing. Each successful language relies on building blocks already invented in other languages.

C# 1.0

The first version is released in the year 2002, and includes the following features:

  • Classes – Already existed for a while in C++ and Java. Imitation
  • Structs – Behave differently than C++ structs, but neither value types and the struct idea by itself are new. Imitation
  • Interfaces – Already existed in Java. Imitation 
EDIT: Following some misunderstandings, I want to clarify this point: When I write a feature like Classes already existed in Java, I don’t mean to imply that Java was the original inventor of Classes. It’s just one example of a programming language that implements a feature before C#, which shows C# wasn’t the original inventor.
  • Delegates – Not a new concept. C included function pointers at that point, which is basically the same thing. Type-safe function pointers like in C# existed in Algol back in 1968. Imitation
  • Events – With the Delegates feature, C# is able to implement the observer-pattern beautifully using Events. Events aren’t new either and already existed in Delphi. Imitation

  • Properties – An elegant solution to replace the endless getters/setters of Java. Properties already existed in Delphi though, with a different syntax. Imitation

  • Attributes – A C# Innovation that was later imitated by Java in the form of @annotations.

While not mentioned as a language feature, C# being a managed language with a Garbage Collection is an imitation by itself of Java.

C# also seems to be influenced by Delphi. That’s not a coincidence. The lead architect’s Anders Hejlsberg old job was Chief Architect of Delphi.

Despite all the imitations, C# 1.0 implements many features with a nicer syntax and combines everything into an elegant language. All this places C# as a viable alternative to Java.

C# 2.0

In 2005, C# 2.0 is released with new, powerful additions:

  • Generics – Generics were implemented in Java one year earlier in 2004. Even before that, the similar Templates existed in C++. The C# implementation of Generics is better than Java’s, but as a language feature, Generics is an Imitation.
  • Partial types – A bit similar to C++, where you can declare all functions in the header file, but implement them in several different files. You still need to have a single header file with all the functions, and this earns C# the Innovation status
  • Anonymous methods – With Anonymous methods, C# makes delegates much nicer to work with. It’s not a new concept though, anonymous functions existed in programming for a long that time (for example, in Haskell 98). Imitation

  • Nullable types – Nullable types exist kind of naturally in dynamic languages, but it’s a new concept in statically typed languages. It also works great with C# structs. Innovation
  • Iterators – At this point iterators are found in C++ STL, Scala, Java and even older languages.
    Java released has the enhanced for each loop with J2SE 5.0 one year earlier. What C# innovates is the yield return syntax to create iterable collections. Still, C# is mostly playing catchup here. Imitation

  • Covariance and contravariance – In this version, Covariance and contravariance are supported for objects, arrays, and delegates. So not for Generics yet. Java already supports return type covariance at this time. It’s unclear whether Scala implemented this before C#. Either way, I’ll have to give this the Imitation status.
  • Static classes – A static class, that has nothing but static methods/fields/properties is unique to C# at this point. Innovation

In version 2.0, C# didn’t add any meaningful language innovations. C# is playing catching with Java, implementing similar features like Iterators and Generics. However, C#’s implementation and language syntax are superior to the direct competitor. So C# is imitating Java, but doing it better.

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We’ll see that C# 2.0 was a turning point in the language war. From this point onward, C# development accelerates and starts gaining a lead over the competition.

C# 3.0

In late 2007, C# 3.0 is released with a boatful of new features.

  • Lambda expression – The lambda expression introduces an elegant syntax to define an anonymous function. Anonymous functions existed in programming much before 2007, but the lambda syntax is relatively new. This syntax becomes so popular that it’s eventually integrated into most popular languages like Ruby, Java, JavaScript, Swift, and C++.
    But is it innovative?

    Apparently not. I found that Haskell in version 98 (1998) and Scala in version 1.3.0 (2004) already implement lambda functions with similar syntax.


  • Extension methods – We can add functionality to any CLR class from the outside

    By this point, this trick is widely used in dynamic languages like Ruby and is known as Monkey Patching. It’s the first of its kind in a strongly typed language like C#. Still, it’s an Imitation 

  • LINQ with Query syntax – Introducing the LINQ feature. C# allows you to write “queries” on collections and manipulate them with minimal code.

    The query syntax by itself is an imitation of query languages like SQL. But unlike SQL, LINQ is type-safe and the first of its kind in a general-purpose and object-oriented programming language. So even though the syntax is an imitation, I’ll have to give it the Innovation status.

  • LINQ with method syntax – Using Extension methods and Lambdas, C# is able to implement LINQ in a functional programming kind of way:

    This turned out to be a game-changing feature for C# and becomes very popular. Innovation

  • Expression trees – This not so much a language feature. It’s a way to add metadata to your LINQ query, which is translated to SQL and eventually executed on the database.
  • Anonymous types – Another innovative C# feature, that works great with LINQ and allows to write pretty elegant code. Innovation

  • Implicitly typed local variables

    The var keyword was a necessity to support the Anonymous Types feature since their type is undefined:

    The var keyword is the first of its kind in strongly-typed languages.  Although I didn’t find anything similar initially, it turns out that the programming language Modula-3 has a similar implementation to c-sharp’s  var. Modula-3 was released way back in 1989, which makes it an ImitationThanks to Darren Morby for pointing that out.

    Eventually, the same feature is adopted by Java, C++ ( auto keyword) and Kotlin.

  • Partial methods – Adds to partial types, which were added in C# 2.0. This allows to declare a method in one part of the type, and implement in another. Very much like header files in C++. Imitation 
  • Object and collection initializers – A shorter syntax to initialize objects and collections. For example:

    Collection initializers are nothing new. For example, in Scala:

    I didn’t find an equivalent for Object initializers since other languages don’t have Properties and rely on the constructor for such initialization. Overall, it’s an Imitation.

  • Auto implemented properties – A short syntax for properties that don’t require field-like logic in their getters and setters.

    As mentioned, Properties existed in Delphi and at this point in Visual Basic. However, auto-implemented properties are a C# Innovation. Visual Basic will imitate this a bit later on with .NET 4.0.

In this version, C# adds some major game-changers to the language wars. Specifically, the LINQ feature, along with Lambda expressions become extremely popular.

In stark contrast, the main competitor Java doesn’t release any new language features. Now Java is the one playing catchup, and it will remain so for a long while. For example, Java adds Lambda functions only with Java 8 in 2014.


Since the initial release in 2002, C# releases three versions and by 2008 it’s a mature language.

C# becomes a major player in the language wars, gaining a big market share.

In 2008, when C# 3.0 is released, Java is the most popular language in the world. According to the TIOBE index, C# is the 7th most popular language at that time (after Java, C, C++, PHP, Perl, and Python).

Check out more C# features and more C# history in Part 2.


EDIT: Thanks to Reddit members pjmlpSideburnsOfDoomTriptychButWith8Bits for pointing out some of the innovations were actually imitations (Fixed now).


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17 thoughts on “C# Features: Innovations or Imitations? – Part 1”

  1. Consider that this is being published in 2018 and contains “In 2008, when C# 3.0 is released,…” . Of very limited utility given the new capabilities (regardless of if there are classified as imitation or innovation) through C# 7.0.

    1. Sure David, but it’s not relevant as a tutorial or something like that. It’s sort of a walk through history – How we got to where we are now. There will be part 2 (and maybe 3) with the later C# versions, all the way to the future C# 8.

  2. Why is everything fundamental (classes, interfaces, etc.) considered an imitation of Java or Delphi? As if Java invented any of this? How do you even mention C# history without pulling in Visual Basic, which at the time was the cash cow funding Microsoft’s developer division, and supported classes, structs, interfaces, automatic memory release, etc.? And VB didn’t invent OOP either. But it did beat the pants off Delphi in the marketplace (which is a big part of why Anders ended up at Microsoft in the first place, but I digress).

    How do you discuss delegates without pointing out that this was a major issue in the Java fight with Microsoft, or that the biggest advancement with delegates wasn’t typed function pointers, but instance-bound function pointers? These were ridiculously obscure in C++ at the time, and not supported in VB (without the extensions in my 2000 Advanced Visual Basic book), Delphi, or Java.

    At least, thank you for acknowledging that C#/.NET and Java generics aren’t even close to technologically equivalent, regardless of surface syntax. One makes code run better, one significantly worse.

    If you leave out unsafe code (which was not allowed in many internal Microsoft .NET projects), early C# was much more like coding VB than Delphi or Java, but it left C/C++ developers forced to move to the brave new world of .NET with the inflated self-esteem that they were still C coders, not VB programmers. The introduction of C# was in many ways a bittersweet pill for VB (internal team and external developers): The VB approach to programming had won, even while the language immediately lost mindshare and prioritization in the company.

    1. Thanks for the comment Matt and for the great information.

      You’re right, definitely a lot was left out. But, this article is by no means meant to be a “full history” of C# or of the “language wars”. If I present it as such, then it’s a mistake on my part.

      As you mentioned, I probably could have described better the language wars or the full history of each feature, but that wasn’t the scope of the article or the intention.

      Addressing your first comment, I didn’t mean C# imitated Java in the fundamental features. Just that Java had them before, so C# imitated *someone* and didn’t invent the feature on their own.

      1. It’s fair enough to say Java had them before simply from a timeline perspective, but implying that C# was imitating Java is a major stretch. Although Microsoft presented C# as a standalone language, considering it’s initial incarnations or history without the .NET framework or Visual Studio environment is pointless, as is discussing Java without its runtime and jitter.

        My point is that attributing the provenance of C# features as a knee-jerk imitation of Java features is extremely simplistic. .NET was considered a next-generation of COM, which significantly predated public versions of Java and had its first RAD environment implementation in VB (1995, after being held a year because VB3 was still selling so well). Microsoft also had a long history of IL with VB. So, while Java IL and JIT was well done, both of these had been used elsewhere for decades and were certainly not innovative. It can also be argued that a good IL runner gives faster performance because of the smaller memory footprint of the code.

        .NET replaced COM reference counting with GC, added a hefty runtime, standardized (and documented) the IL, and (importantly) replaced the COM memory-layout standard with the much safer IL standard, but the COM provenance overall is very clear in .NET–and the C# language created to implement it.

        I guess my point is that the entire C# development experience was a continuation and evolution of the Visual Basic environment and the Microsoft Java tools (remember those?) than an imitation of the Java language. Did competition and feature matching with Java occur? Of course, just like Delphi stretched VB in the day. But many of the language features–especially the classic OO core–had nothing to do with Java, and were simply a continuation of long establish features in the Microsoft environment.

        As Juan points out, the innovation is often in the packaging and not the individual language features, especially in a language like C# that is a synergistic part of a larger environment.

        1. Matt, I think I see your point. C# as you say is technological continuity of COM, Visual Basic and Microsoft IL developments and the tools around it like Visual Studio. And I probably should’ve mentioned VB and existing Microsoft developments in the article!

          However, consider that strategically speaking, C# was a direct response to Java. Java was gaining huge popularity, and Microsoft probably didn’t want Sun corporation to have such leverage on Windows.

          This started as J++, an effort to implement Java language specification on Windows, and ended in C# (with J# in between).

          So as a technology perhaps C# derives from VB more than Java in terms of tools and IL development. But as far as the language itself, C# very much imitates Java (at least initially) more than any other language at that time.

          1. No argument on the need for a full programming ecosystem response to Java at the time, but I think you need to look past the C-style syntax when comparing to Java, which is a much different language. There are major, fundamental differences between Java and C# that have direct analogs in VB/OLE Automation (properties, events, ref/out parameters, struct, primitive-value-based enum, indexers) and major other features that are completely different (case fallthrough and goto semantics, using vs import, nested classes, primitive datatype handling, nested class semantics, boxing support, namespace vs package, file-structure bound class names, explicit exception declarations, iterators, IDisposable, casting options and type checking, etc.).

            Basically, once you look past the superficial C-without-*-and-& similarity the languages are just not that close. There is a much closer mapping to VB (classic and .NET) than Java, IMHO.

  3. Juan Carlos Chávez

    Innovation: Gather the best features of every exiting language in a single language to make it more powerful.

    Yes… somebody invented the wheel centuries ago, but that does not mean that there are different types of them and better

  4. Most of your innovation/imitation rulings I can agree with and why even argue it since C# was never designed as a revolutionary language. It even stole it’s name from a predecessor. But I have to disagree with you on generics. First, C++ templates are nothing like generics in either Java or C#. It does not even have the same goals other than to reduce repeated typing (and typing). The generics in C# might superficially imitate Java’s generics, the implementation is superior enough to call it an innovation. Otherwise, we should just call a La Ferrari an imitation of a Model T; after all they are superficiality the same with 4 wheels, a cab, and a steering wheel.

    1. Hi Ken,

      I agree with you about C# implementation being much better than Java’s. I had to make a judgement call and called it an imitation. The reason is that they are identical, or close enough, in terms of the language syntax.

  5. You are missing the actual innovation of partial methods. You do not have to write them. Calls to partial methods without a body is removed on compile time.

  6. Consider that extension methods in C# is more like a syntactic sugar, not a monkey patch.
    When you write an extension method you’re just writing a static method in a class. And when you call it, it’s like you’re calling the static method of that class.

    Monkey patch it’s more than that. Monkey patch is about modifying class methods/properties at runtime.

    1. You’re absolutely right. However, I believe extension methods were inspired by monkey-patching functional style of programming. So in a way, it’s an imitation with a different implementation.

  7. I think a couple of the “innovations” may actually be imitations, or at the very least independently-developed implementations of ideas that have existed in other languages. It’s no longer reasonable for a language designer to be aware of ALL programming languages that have ever existed.

    The static class is similar to a package in the Ada language. You can declare an exported variable in an Ada package and it would be like a static field in a static class. Similarly, an Ada procedure can be exported and it would be like a C# static method. I could also point to the Modula-2 and Modula-3 languages for their modules and interfaces.

    Speaking of Modula-3, you can declare a local variable with VAR x := expression; and x would be implicitly typed. This goes back to circa 1989 (Reference:

    1. Thanks for the input Darren!
      I checked the Modula-3 spec and you turned out to be right. Changed the section about ‘var’ to imitation.
      I looked at packages in Ada and it still seems too different from C# static classes, where everything has to be static by definition.

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